Clinico-Pathological and Bacteriological Studies on Turkey Experimentally Infected With Pasteurella Multocida with A Trail For Treatment Using Spectinomycin

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate clinico-pathological changes on turkey poult infected with Pasteurella Multocida (P. Multocida), about 200 turkey poults, 15 th day old, were subjected for bacteriological examination to obtain 80 healthy turkey poults free from any bacterial infection. Turkey poult were divided to 4 equal group, 1 st Gp healthy poults non treated (control), 2 nd Gp healthy poults injected with 20 mg/kg bwt. spectinomycin for 5 days, 3 rd Gp infected non treated turkey poults and 4 th Gp infected poults treated with 20 mg/kg b. wt spectinomycin for 5 days. Clinical signs, mortality rate and post mortom examination were recorded. Effect of P. Multocida and spictinomycin on body weight was studied. At the end of treatment (1 st day post treatment) 5 poults from each group were sacrificed, blood samples were taken for hemato-biochemical analysis. Samples from liver and kidney for detection of spectinomycin residue, beside samples from internal organs were taken for pathological study. Turkey poults received spectinomycin showed significant increase in weight gain, improve feed conversion rate, significant decrease in RBCs, Hb, PCV% and insignificant effect in leukogram, total protein, albumin, globulin, AST , ALT, ALP, uric acid, creatinine, serum total lipid, cholesterol and triglyceride as compared with healthy non treated group Pasteurellosis in turkey showed clinical signs of loss of appetite, depression, ruffled feathers, dropping of the wings, fever, diarrhea, poor growth, emaciation as well as cyanosis of comb and wattles and mortality rate was 25 %. Significant reduction in body weight, weight gain, RBCs, PCV%, Hb and significant elevation in feed conversion rate, WBCs, monocyte, globulin AST, ALT, ALP uric acid, creatinine and insignificant effect in heterophils, lymphocyts, Eosinophils, basophile, total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin and A/G ratio . Spectinomycin residues were detected in liver and kidney up to 9 days post treatment but not detected at 12 days post treatment and its residues in kidney higher than in liver. The pathological examination of internal organs of different groups revealed, spectinomycin treated group (4) should mild pathological alteration in the internal organ,, however P. multocida infection induced severe pathological lesions as hepatic Egypt. J. Chem. Environ. Health, 2 (2):392 -407 (2016) On line ISSN: 2536-9164. 282 and lung tissue hemorrhage and congestion, spleen lymphocytic depletion, degenerative changes of renal tubules. cardiac muscle showed round cell infiltration , hemorrhage and degeneration of muscle fibers. The trachea showed mucosal desquamated epithelium and leukocytic infiltration but infected turkey poult treated with spectinomycin induced marked improvement in the pathological changes. It could be concluded that pasterullosis in turkey poult induced many reversible adverse effect on body performance and hemato-biochemical parameters which is confirmed by pathological changes. Spectinomycin in therapeutic dose is considerable effective in treatment of pasteurollosis in turkey poult. Introduction Avian pasteurellosis is a contagious disease of domestic and wild birds caused by P. multocida (Curtis and Ollerhead, 1990). Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) bacteria causes a variety of different disease syndromes in various animals (Wilkie et al., 2012). Pasteurellosis is a disease in a range of avian species including chickens, turkeys and ducks (Shilpa, et al. 2015). The disease occurs in two forms, acute septicemic form of sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality but chronic infection has been localised in joints and sinuses (Rhoades and Rimler, 1991). Turkeys are more susceptible to pasteurellosis than chickens and the susceptibility to this infection increases as the age advances (Carpenter, et al. 1991). Clinical sings of pasteurollosis include loss of appetite, mucous discharge from mouth, diarrhea, and labored breathing (Carter and De Alwis, 1989). Aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols are antibiotics group that frequently used in Veterinary and human Medicine against gram negative and some gram positive bacteria. Spectinomycin is a one of the aminoglycoside aminocyclitol antibiotics, with broad spectrum antibacterial activity isolated from Streptomyces spectalis (Murray 1991). It is bactriostatic antibiotic which acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis (Einstein et al 1994). It is active against G +ve and G-ve bacteria (Brander et al., 1982). Present study was designed to clarify the effect of spectinomycin on body performance-, haemato-biochemical and pathological changes of P. multocida infected turkey poults. Materials and Methods Spectinomycin (Spectam)® Spectam is a liquid form of spectinomycin. It supplied by Amoun Pharmaceutical Comp., El-Obour City, Cairo. It available in bottles of 100ml its used in therapeutic dose of 20 mg/kg b. wt intramuscular injection for 5 successive days (Einstein et al., 1994). Experimental turkeys Coloacal swabs were aseptically collected from 200, 15 day old, turkey poults, they were inoculated into nutrient broth at 37 0 C over night, sub-culturing on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar plates for 24h at 37 0 C and suspected colonies were identified (Woldehiwet, et al. 1990).this step was don to obtain 80 turkey poults free from any bacterial infection that using in this study.. Turkey poults were fed on Egypt. J. Chem. Environ. Health, 2 (2):392 -407 (2016) On line ISSN: 2536-9164. 283 freshly prepared balanced ration and kept under hygienic conditions during experimental period. Pasterulla multocida challenge Pasteurella multocida strain that used in this study was obtained from bacteriological department Faculty Of Veterinary medicine Zagazig. University. Determination virulence of Pasterulla multocida was done by inculcation of mice (Okerman, et al 1979). On day 21 of age, 40 turkey poults were intranasal inoculated with 0.2 ml/ poult of 48h broth culture of P. multocida containing (3x10 8 CFU) viable organism (Baron et

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